Why have I not heard any of this from the scholars today? There are various possible reasons and I’ll leave you to work that out for yourself. However, the scholars take their knowledge from the scholars and books that I have quoted. Ask your favourite sheikh for his answer.

Why do you think the topic of knowing the complexions of the people of the past is important?
The truth is always important! If you don’t know the truth, how can you understand the truth?How do you even teach it? Every word that that the Prophet sullahu alayhi wa Salam uttered is important and his companions may Allah be pleased with them recognised the importance and questioned the Prophet sullahu alayhi wa salaam without being told that it wasn’t important . In fact, he welcomed the questions and even gave physical descriptions without being asked. Allah didn’t preserve any of this for nothing .The most notable of these descriptions is the description of the dajjal. I’m sure you understand that is important…. Why is this all important? 

How does knowing the complexions of the Arabs of the past change anything?
If you don’t know that knowing the truth is always important, then it’s possible that you don’t deem any truth to be important. Knowing the truth about knowledge that was misinformed, changed to suit certain people or not brought to light at all will revert perceptions of the past to its natural state, bring light to the perceptions of the present and prepare you for the future.

Qaady Al Iyaad May Allah have mercy upon him said that anyone who said the the prophet was اسود should be killed and if the Prophet sullahu alayhi wa Salam wasn’t اسود who could it be that the Arabs were not the same complexion as him?
First of all, the scholar was speaking about a specific complexion and not a specific group of people as it is commonly misunderstood to mean. Most people who are described as being black today are not اسود. In Arabic اسود means jet black. Would anyone in his or her right mind describe the phenotype of Nelson Mandela to be اسود or jet black? I believe that the answer to that is NO because he wasn’t اسود or jet black.
The second point is that, that was the scholar’s opinion and it isn’t a majority view nor is it something that is binding. Only the Quran and Sunnah is binding. More on the complexion of the Prophet sullahu alayhi wa salaam soon.

What is the difference between a general description الاسود and a specific description اسود?
The general term الاسود is a term used to describe groups of people who have dark skin, people who have higher levels of melanin in their skin. This term covers the original Arabs, most places in what we call ‘Africa today and those that descended from them, Asians with dark skin such as those from India, Bangladesh, Tamal etc.

Abu Ubaid Al Qaasim Ibn Salaam May Allah have mercy upon him breaks this down nicely in his book, Ghareeb Al Hadeeth, Chapter 4 page 388.

And his saying Al Hamraa( The reds which means the whites) – It means the non Arabs and the clients (the red slaves and the red people that embraced Islam ) they were named that because the most predominant colours of the Arabs are Al Sumurah and Al Udmah and the most predominant colours of the non Arab is white and red and this is like the saying of the people : If you wanted to mention mankind then you’d say the reds and the blacks. So the reds are all of those that are overwhelmed with whiteness and the blacks are those who are overwhelmed with Al Udmah (blackness) .

غريب الحديث لابن سلام رحمه الله الجزء ج ٤ ص ٣٨٨

قوله: الحمراء – يعني العجم والموالي، سموا بذلك لأن الغالب على ألوان العرب السمرة والأدمة، والغالب على ألوان العجم البياض والحمرة وهذا كقول الناس: إن أردت أن تذكر بني آدم فقلت: أحمرهم وأسودهم، فأحمرهم كل من غلب عليه البياض، وأسودهم من غلبت عليه الأدمة.

Read more about the general term -the blacks here: https://alajamwalarab.com/i-was-sent-to-the-red-and-the-black/

Now for a specific description اسود this would only apply to a person who has a very very dark complexion, jet black, blue black etc.

Read here for more details

Why was Bilal May Allah be pleased with him called the “son of a black woman” in a derogatory manner?

No he wasn’t. The narration is weak and I ask anyone who spread this narration not knowing that it was a weak narration before he or she died to be forgiven. I also ask Allah to guide those who still spread this narration in order to prove why Islam is free from racism, or how Islam saved “black” people. Islam doesn’t need fabrications, lies and fallacies to prove why Islam is for everyone. Stop dishonouring Abu Dhar May Allah be pleased with him.

Read more here : https://alajamwalarab.com/index.php/bilal-and-abu-dhar/

To be continued….